Global and transnational sexualities are used as a source of capital by means of employment, media and neoliberalism. The standardization of beauty, which has emerged because of globalization, effects the opportunities of employment and the way immigrants are viewed especially in Lebanon and the US.
The idea that light skinned women are more attractive causes them to be viewed above women of different skin tones. In Lebanon, although maids of darker skin tone charge less, Filipina women are seen as more desirable because of their appearance. Their appearance also makes it “unsafe” from them in the public. Many madams believe that if they let their maids outside without supervision that they will be corrupted. This shows the difference in Lebanon’s view of Filipina women. They are seen to be diligent, beautiful housemaids (binit) and yet they have to be watched over because society sees them as being extremely sexual (sharmuta) due to the fact they are disconnected to their own societal expectations. This separation from their typical society causes them to have a moral panic in which they must consider which morals they will keep compared to which morals they will adapt to match their new society. Most of them are unable to rebel and truly change their morals due to the power their employer’s exercise on them in order to keep their binit status.
This need for employers to control their workers is present right here in America. Immigrant women working in the fields are prone to sexual assault. Their jobs are based on their sexuality. The only way they can get a job and continue to be offered a job is to engage in these acts, even though they are completely unwilling. Undocumented laborers are a commodity in which they must exchange their sexuality for jobs. They cannot stand up for themselves due to the fact they could lose their job if they tell. Immigrants are not willing to report the assaults to the police for fear of being deported. The police should be more supportive of women attempting to report assaults, no matter what country they are from. There has only been a few rape cases that the male has actually be charged. This is due to the fact that immigrant women are seen as more sexual and therefore people are less likely to believe them. How do we encourage immigrant women in the US to come forward about what is going on in the fields? The idea that immigrants are hyper sexual and do not follow typical society’s views is transnational and is the reason why they are dominated by their employers.
The images of different cultures views of beauty was shown in how different countries Photoshop their pictures. Almost all of the countries lightened the journalist’s skin and raised her check bones. The reason all of the images were so similar is because of globalization. When you compare the ideals of beauty in mass media across countries, you see that a similar image is sold on all containers. This transnational image of beauty is used to sell goods by giving women the idea that they can look that way if they use the product. The way media uses hypersexual images in different countries effects capital feminio. The value of virginity, as capital, goes down in countries where mass media portray women as being very sexual creatures. In more rural countries where mass media is not portrayed as regularly, virginity is traded in exchange for financially stability and a home. This is not the case in America where the value of virginity has decreased substantially and is not seen as a commodity.
One of the reasons that sexuality has been able to creep into capital is neoliberalism. Sex is to be used as a commodity, such as prostitution. Although the idea of free market is good, the people with the most power usually end up controlling the capital. The countries that are more powerful impose their views of sexuality onto other countries due to globalization. This is seen in the case of condoms. The United States sent condoms to multiple countries in order to help with the prevention of AIDs and STDs in third world countries. They used condoms as a commodity while hindering economic growth in this area for other, more impoverished, countries. It is hindering economic growth because we are the ones using labor to make them. Other countries do not believe in contraception due to religious beliefs but we still try and force our own beliefs on them because we think that we are helping. Many countries see it as our government, in combination with their own, trying to control their sexuality. Although we think we are helping these countries, we are forcing our ideals onto them while also hindering their economy. There are many pros to neoliberalism but in the case of sexuality, it has negative consequences on less powerful countries.
The articles in the book showed how employment, media and neoliberalism use global and transnational sexualities as commodities. . The standardization of beauty, which has emerged because of globalization, affects the how immigrants in the US and Lebanon are viewed. Although neoliberalism can be good in many aspects, the way countries use it to control sexuality, has a negative effect.
Do you think that neoliberalism, in the case of sexuality, is positive or negative? Do you think that m should try and enforce safe sex in rural areas, even if it goes against its population’s beliefs?